مقدمه ای بر آموزش الکترونیک
با توجه به گسترش فناوری اطلاعات و نفوذ وسایل ارتباط از راه دور ، ابزارها و روش های آموزشی نیز دچار تغییر و تحول گردیده است.:
آموزش الکترونیکی و آموزش مجازی در سطح وسیعی از جامعه گسترده گردیده،کلاس های آموزشی به صورت غیر حضوری و به نحوه آموزش الکترونیکی برگزار می گردد. امروزه بدلیل پیشرفت و گسترش اینترنت علاوه بر آموزش بیشتر امور روزمره نیز بصورت الکترونیکی در آمده که در اینجا لازم است و نقش ارزشمند آموزش الکترونیکی در رشد و شکوفایی جامعه بپردازیم.
ويژگي بارز زمان كنوني انفجار اطلاعات در مكان و زمان است كه در اثر رشد شتبابناك فن آوري موجود آمده است سرعت حيرت انگيز رشد فن آوري اطلاعات فضايي را ايجاد كرده است كه بايد سازمانها با تمام توان آمادگي لازم را داشته باشند تا از مسير رشد و توسعه از اين حركت پويا باز نمانند اين موقعيت الزاماتي را مي طلبد كه ناگزير بايد به آن مجهز شد و اطلاعاتي را در اوّلين فرصت حاصل كرد و بكار برد و سپس توليد اطلاعات نمود تا سازماني پويا و زنده در عرصه جهاني و هم حرفي براي گفتن داشته باشيم , و قابليت هايي كه خداوند ارزاني داشته است را به شايستگي بكار ببريم .
امروزه اكثر سازمانها بر اين باورند كه گذر از مرحله برگزاري و اجراي برنامه هاي آموزشي كاركنان در كليه سطوح از شيوه سنتي آن به صورت آموزش الكترونيكي ( E - Learning ) بر اساس تحقيقات به عمل آمده در شركتها و مؤسساتي كه تاكنون از اينگونه تجهيزات و امكانات آموزشي بهره گرفته اند ، نشان مي دهد كه اجراي اين مهم در سه حوزه اصلي:
· بهبود عملكرد
· افزايش كارآيي و اثربخشي
· كاهش هزينه هاي آموزش
تأثيربه سزايي داشته است , به طوري كه آمارها نشان مي دهد حدود 40 درصد كاهش هزينه در اينگونه شركتها و مؤسسات بدون كاهش اثربخشي از طريق جايگزيني و بكارگيري آموزشهاي الكترونيكي گزارش شده است . در بُعد افزايش كارآيي و اثربخشي مشخص شده است كه آموزشهاي الكترونيكي زمان يادگيري فراگيران را به طور متوسط بين 25 تا 50 درصد كاهش داده و نشان داده است كه زمان فعال حفظ اطلاعات نيز به نسبت قابل ملاحظه اي افزايش يافته است . و در خصوص بهبود عملكرد نيز عنوان گرديد كه با آموزش الكترونيكي مي توان محيط كاري با نيروي انساني آموزش ديده در حداقل زمان ممكن ايجاد نمود كه نتيجه آن بهره وري بيشتر در سازمان خواهد بود .
سازمانها مي توانند با بهبود شرايط و اجراي برنامه هاي آموزش آشنا سازي كاركنان با نحوه بهره گيري از آموزش الكترونيكي , صرفه جوئيهاي بسياري را در پرداخت هزينه هاي حقوق و بكارگيري كاركنان بويژه در حوزه تخصصي و كارشناسي بعمل آورند .
با اجراي برنامه هاي آموزشي به شيوه الكترونيكي نه تنها از كيفيت نظارت و اجراي آموزش كاسته نمي شود بلكه با توجه به قابليتهاي بسيار وسيع اجرايي اين گونه سيستمها ، مي توان از مرحله نيازسنجي آموزشي و برنامه ريزي تا مرحله اجرا و نظارت و ارزيابي و نتيجتا" صدور گواهينامه هاي مربوطه به نحوي بسيار مطلوب و همه جانبه اقدام نمود كه اين مهم خود باعث صرفه جويي ساليانه نسبت به هزينه هاي آموزشي به شيوه سنتي مي شود .
پنج اشتباه در استفاده از آموزش الکترونيکى
بخش مقاله آى تى ايران - داگرچه آموزش الکترونيکى فنآورى مورد بحث روز مىباشد، اما شرکتهايى که اقدام به پيادهسازى اين فنآورى مىنمايند اگر از برخى موارد مشکلزا حذر ننمايند، با دشواريهاى فراوانى مواجه خواهند شد.
1-عدم حمايت مديريت ارشد سازمان در مراحل خريد و اجراى مداوم
استقرار فنآورى تنها يک بخش از اجراى آموزش الکترونيکى مىباشد. براى کسب موفقيت در درازمدت، مباحث سازمانى از مهمترين چالشها مىباشند. مباحثى چون: پيوند آموزش و راهبرد تجارى سازمان، تأمين حمايت مالى، اولويت بندى نيازهاى مربوط به فنآورى و متقاعد کردن کاربران به استفاده از اين روش آموزشى بجاى روشهاى پيشين.
بهترين شيوه: تشکيل کميته پياده سازى آموزش الکترونيکى که در آن يکى از مديران بلند پايه شرکت در رده معاونين يا اعضاى هيأت مديره، به همراه اعضايى به نمايندگى از تمامى حوزهها (از جمله دفتر فنآورى اطلاعات) براى راهبرى توسعه، استقرار و رشد مداوم آموزش الکترونيکى، شرکت دارند.
2-محتواى آموزشى خسته کننده و ضعيف
محتواى ضعيف عامل شکست آموزش الکترونيکى بوده و دانشجويان را به سرعت پراکنده مىنمايد. محتوايى که تنها خواندنى باشد توجه دانشجو را جلب نمىکند. محتوايى که نيازهاى آنان را برآورده ننمايد نيز، بدون استفاده خواهد ماند.
بهترين شيوه: حصول اطمينان از اينکه محتواى آموزشى از نظر فنآورى داراى طراحى مناسب مىباشد و دانشجويان را مجذوب خود مىنمايد. انتخاب دقيق محصولات آماده و يا سفارشى که منطبق با نياز کارمندان و ضامن رشد حرفهاى آنان باشد، بهتر از خريد کتابخانههاى حاوى صدها عنوان مطلب مىباشد.
3- فنآورى که کاربرد آن سخت بوده و غيرمطمئن باشد
وقتى که استفاده از فنآورى، خود يک چالش براى دانشجو باشد، آموزش رخ نخواهد داد. حتى در صورت اجرا نيز، بکارانداختن فنآورى مسئله اصلى مىشود و آموزش در مرتبه دوم قرار مىگيرد.
بهترين شيوه: حصول اطمينان از اينکه زيرساختهاى موجود نيازهاى اوليه آموزش الکترونيکى را برآورده مىسازند و فنآورى بکارگرفته شده براى دانشجويان قابل درک و روشن مىباشد. همکارى نزديک با دفتر فنآورى اطلاعات در هر مرحله از ايجاد و استقرار آموزش الکترونيکي. ارتقاء اجزا بر اساس رشد نيازمنديها در عوض خريد فنآورى که داراى امکاناتى اضافى مىباشد که بکار نمىآيند.
4- فرهنگى که پذيراى آموزش الکترونيکى نباشد و يا هيچ اطلاعى از آن نداشته باشد.
فنآورى عالى و محتواى آموزشى ممتاز مورد قبول دانشجويان واقع نمىشود، مگر اينکه آنان از قبل آمادگى تجربه آموزش الکترونيکى را داشته باشند. آموزش الکترونيکى با آموزش کلاسى بسيار متفاوت است و اغلب اتفاق مىافتد که کاربران بعنوان يک خطمشى آموزشى با چشم ترديد به آن مى نگرند.
بهترين شيوه: ساماندهى يک تيم از بخشهاى مختلف سازمان که شامل بازرگانى، آموزش و مديريت مىشود، بمنظور تهيه مداوم اطلاعات، تجربيات و پشتيبانى مورد نياز دانشجويان.
5-ينيت نيافتن آموزش الکترونيکى همراه با نتايج قابل اندازهگيرى
قراردادن دورههاى آموزشى در يک فهرست بلندبالا، استفاده از آنها را تضمين نمىکند. حتى تعداد دسترسىها به اين دورهها هم بيانگر تعداد کاربرانى که مطلب را ياد گرفتهاند نمىباشد. جلب حمايت مداوم مديريت بستگى به نتايج قابل سنجشى دارد که تأثير مستقيم در تجارت شرکت دارد.
بهترين شيوه: تعيين خط مبناى اندازهگيرى مهارتهاى کاربران و قراردادن مقاصدى براى رشد دانشجويان با استفاده از آموزش الکترونيکي. تدوين برنامه آموزش الکترونيکى براى هر کارمند همراه با تجربياتى که باعث ايجاد دگرگونى در کارايى شغلى وى مىشود و ترتيب دادن سيستمى براى اندازهگيرى اين نتايج.
Is E-Learning Right for Your Organization?
By Terri Anderson
Edit by: Mahdi yarahmadi khorasani
E-learning, distance education, computer-based training, Web-based training, or distributed learning. Whatever you call it, e-learning is creating quite a stir in corporate America and becoming a growth industry in the education and training field. Already there are public and private companies, which offer fee-based and free training on the Web. But will e-learning truly revolutionize employee development efforts?
The answer depends on a company's approach and commitment to the design and implementation of e-learning. Like any other major company initiative, e-learning strategies require significant up-front analysis, development time, money, and leadership support to be successful. And like almost every major company training initiative, there's tremendous pressure to pick a program and run with it before understanding the full range of issues and ramifications. Looking at the following five critical success factors--or the five Cs--will help companies make sound e-learning decisions and, we hope, eliminate some training failures.
The five Cs of successful programs are culture, content, capability, cost, and clients. Any of these factors can derail even the best-intentioned e-learning initiative. Collectively, they're the make or break success factors that determine whether e-learning will persist or perish in an organization.
Will corporate culture support e-learning? How does a company view employee development, and who is responsible for employee learning?
The traditional training model--in which the manager identifies employee development needs, the training director identifies a solution, and the employee attends some type of classroom-based program--will not work with e-learning strategies because some control shifts to the individual learner. Indeed, the opportunity for employees to self-identify development needs is touted as one of e-learning's major benefits. Employees don't have to wait for a training director to identify a learning need; they can assess individual skill gaps and access information as they need it. But if company culture dictates a tightly controlled attendance policy or if learning is for an exclusive group of participants, use and interest will be limited.
Another cultural factor that influences the acceptance and support of e-learning is whether employee development is measured by classroom occupancy rates or by actual changes in employee skills and knowledge. In addition to the unbounded time potential of e-learning, other benefits include flexibility and portability. Learning can occur at the employee’s home, office, or any other Internet- or intranet-accessible location. But companies that recognize only classroom-based training as an instructional strategy may not be receptive to learning that occurs at the employee’s desktop or home. Will your corporate culture recognize and support those types of learning? How will your company encourage and reward employees who take responsibility for their own development and complete programs? Clearly, there must be some financial controls on e-learning expenditures, but companies will need to encourage and embrace diverse learning strategies to reap the benefits of e-learning.
Transitioning from instructor-led training to e-learning is a major cultural shift that will not persist without the buy-in and support of senior leadership. It's important that the business case for e-learning be clearly defined and communicated throughout the organization. A hollow mandate to implement an e-learning program without the required resources to do so is doomed to failure. Conversely, without senior leadership support, e-learning's best-laid plans will wither on the vine.
Some questions to consider when assessing corporate culture and readiness include
* What is the business case for e-learning?
* How does e-learning support business goals and objectives?
* What value does the company place on learning?
* What is the company's definition of learning?
* Are learning and training viewed as synonymous terms?
* Where and how does the company believe learning should occur?
* Who determines when learning should occur?
* Who is responsible for identification of employee development needs?
* Does the company support employees who seek out non-traditional development programs or experiences?
* Does the company recognize and reward employee learning outside the traditional classroom?
* Are senior leaders prepared to support e-learning?
* What resources (money and people) are committed to e-learning?
Is the instructional content appropriate for e-learning? Technology has made huge advancements enabling e-learning to mimic a traditional classroom-based learning experience. Online videos can provide dramatic representations of key content areas, audio files can reinforce displayed information, and online discussions and collaborative whiteboards facilitate interactive experiences among geographically dispersed groups. However, there are still some instructional content areas that may not be suitable for e-learning. Psychomotor skills, in particular, require hands-on practice and interactive demonstrations for learners to achieve mastery. For instance, people can read about, discuss, see videos of, or listen to experts describe how to swim, but eventually they have to get wet. E-learning can be part of an instructional strategy to teach swimming, but it's not be the best or only method used to teach this skill.
As in other instructional programs, the decision to use e-learning starts with a clear and concise statement of the problem, good instructional objectives, clarification of instructional content areas, and identification of evaluation metrics. E-learning programs are especially effective at teaching cognitive skills in well-structured domains where conveying information is a critical part of the instructional process. Examples include teaching employees how to use software programs, having employees discriminate between two set choices, or providing instructions for completing a benefits enrollment form. Each of those skills requires understanding and applying a procedure or information with clear right and wrong choices.
Poorly structured problems require high-level cognitive skills, such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of unclear or conflicting data. Learners are required to recall, understand, and apply information to unique situations or problems for which there's no clearly defined right or wrong outcome. Examples of ill-structured problems include evaluating the merits of outsourcing work, developing a comprehensive marketing strategy that incorporates diverse data, or evaluating the merits of a strategic business acquisition. Although e-learning may support part of those learning needs, it works best when combined with additional collaborative strategies.
Attitudinal skills and psychomotor skills are content areas in which e-learning may support but not entirely replace traditional instructional programs. Attitudinal skills typically require expert modeling and reinforcement that increases the interactivity requirement and the cost of e-learning programs. While case studies, online simulations, role plays, and online coaching can facilitate learning in the electronic world, designers need to evaluate whether they should completely replace more traditional instructional strategies.
Determining whether content is suitable for e-learning requires close inspection of the learning objectives. For example, cognitive skills appropriate for stand alone e-learning programs ask learners to state, understand, identify, and select between two clearly defined alternatives; read information and answer questions about a specific topic; or complete an assignment with clearly defined parameters. However, e-learning programs will need support from additional learning activities if employees are required to analyze, design, predict, evaluate, synthesize, construct, formulate, or develop a procedure or plan. It's important to remember that electronic delivery and multimedia should be viewed as an additional instructional strategies. No amount of streaming video, sound bites, or graphic pictures will compensate for poorly designed programs that fail to foster crucial instructional objectives.
Key questions to consider when evaluating e-learning programs for a specific content area include
* What are the learning objectives that the company is trying to achieve?
* What are the skills the company is trying to teach?
* Are the skills cognitive, attitudinal, or motor skills?
* Is the problem well-defined?
* What instructional methods are required to deliver the content?
* What type of follow-up, practice, or support is required to achieve mastery?
* What degree of learning interactivity or collaboration is required?
* What resources are available or required to achieve the instructional goals?
* What is the best or most cost-effective venue the company has to deliver this content to the learner?
* What are the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating e-learning strategies?
Capability involves the wide spectrum of computer hardware, infrastructure, IT support, and instructional design. Can an organization’s infrastructure support e-learning programs? Computer access, in addition to multimedia capability, is required to capture the full advantage of many e-learning programs. The Internet provides commercial e-learning programs but may not be available to all learners. Intranets can distribute e-learning, but what happens if a company doesn't have an internal intranet? Even companies with an intranet or widely available Internet access may have some type of security or firewall protection that limits access to Web-based information. E-learning programs delivered online may include large audio or video files not supported by the existing infrastructure. Internal capability should support multimedia technology to fully optimize e-learning programs.
Other capabilities that need development are instructional design support and follow-up strategies. Companies can buy off-the-shelf e-learning programs, but they should be evaluated to determine whether they're suitable for a specific need and target audience. In addition, follow-up instruction should be developed to ensure content mastery and employee satisfaction with the learning experience.
Some questions to consider when evaluating internal capability for e-learning initiatives include:
* Do employees have access to computers?
* Do computers support multimedia applications?
* What system factors may limit access to all or parts of e-learning programs?
* Does the company have the capability to identify and evaluate e-learning programs?
* Does the company have the capability to design programs or identify appropriate suppliers?
* Does the company have the capability to develop and implement e-learning follow-up support?
* Does the company have the capability to track and monitor e-learning usage?
* Who will provide technical support for employees involved?
Can the company afford an e-learning initiative? The truth is that e-learning can be expensive. What are the key cost factors of an e-learning initiative and how do they compare with existing programs?
First, it's important to identify the degree of implementation for the initiative. Is the company looking for a full-scale, integrated e-learning and knowledge management system or merely implementation of a commercially available Web-based training program? Obviously the costs of these two initiatives will be exponentially different, with the former costing thousands or even hundreds of thousands of dollars and the latter costing a few hundred dollars depending on the number of learners.
Even companies who would like to start with a small pilot e-learning program will require some method of tracking enrollment, participation, and completion rates. Learning management systems (LMS) enable companies to track learners and provide a variety of standard or customized reports. LMSs range in price from thousands of dollars to hundreds of thousands of dollars. The number of features, organizational size, system capability, and degree of customization will increase the cost substantially. However, the tracking and reporting capabilities may already be available in-house. Some HRIS systems have tracking features embedded in the software. A key first step in determining the cost of an e-learning initiative is to determine if tracking and reporting capabilities are already available or need to be developed or purchased from a supplier.
The second cost factor is the courseware. Does the company want to convert existing programs to an e-learning format? The cost of videotaping and digitizing existing programs can vary significantly, and companies that custom design highly interactive multimedia programs will see a dramatic increase in cost. But for appropriate instructional content and a geographically dispersed population, this figure may represent a cost savings over the life of a program.
The alternative to outsourcing the design and development of courseware is to use off-the-shelf authoring tools, such as Trainersoft, Toolbook II, or CourseBuilder. The cost for software ranges from US$400 to US$2900, and may include technical or design support for a predefined time period. Authoring tool features include design templates, streaming media capabilities, testing and scoring capabilities, and online and technical support. A baseline estimate to produce instructional video for e-learning programs is about US$1,000 per minute; that figure increases with complex video and design requirements.
The third, and least expensive, option is to purchase existing Web-based programs. The number of companies offering programs swells daily with prices ranging from less than US$10 per user to more than US$100 per user. Price structure varies, including per-user fees, a time-availability price, and system or library licensing. Many suppliers provide sample programs or allow one-time use for evaluation purposes. In addition, some programs permit a limited degree of product customization, such as the insertion of a company name or logo. Trainers need to be aggressive in evaluating the quality and features of commercial programs.
In addition to individual courseware and LMS costs, companies must consider overall technology or system requirements. The state of organizational readiness and potential IT upgrades can be crucial factors for determining cost. For example, audio and video segments may require specific system capabilities for high quality and speed. Does the current system support these applications?
Critical questions to consider when evaluating the cost of an e-learning initiative include
* How extensive is the e-learning initiative: company-wide, single program, or somewhere in-between?
* Is this a new offering or replacement of an existing program?
* What are the advantages and disadvantages of using electronic delivery for this program?
* Are internal resources available for tracking and reporting learners?
* What internal system capabilities are required for the e-learning initiative?
* What internal system capabilities does the company have?
* Are programs commercially available or do they need to be custom designed?
* Will the program be designed in-house or by an outside supplier?
* Are design tools or authoring systems available in house or do they need to be purchased?
* What are the pricing considerations for a commercial program: per use, time-based, or site or library license?
* What factors will be used to compare the cost of e-learning programs against existing programs?
Will clients (employees) use e-learning? E-learning availability doesn't guarantee that employees will seek out or access resources. Employee acceptance is critical, but how do you get employees to embrace e-learning? The key is to address such factors as awareness, attitude, and access to e-learning programs.
You wouldn't plan a classroom-based training program without informing employees of the location, time, agenda, or course requirements. The same is true for e-learning. Successful e-learning initiatives require strong internal marketing that begins long before the actual implementation date. Some employees will jump at the chance to control their own development and learning; others will need to be coaxed into using e-learning resources. All employees need to be aware of the rationale for and benefits of e-learning opportunities, and they need to be encouraged to seek out and complete programs that address their key development needs. Company newsletters, staff meetings, email, policy and procedure manuals, and employee mailings should be used to explain the business case for adopting e-learning strategies and to promote the benefits of e-learning. Communications should stress e-learning benefits to employees, including
* any time, anywhere learning
* the opportunity to assess their own skills andselect programs, enabling greater control over career and promotional opportunities
* the ability to create customized learning paths and have control over the information they access
* the availability information to be accessed multiple times
* the ability to complete formal education without having to leave home. Employees can earn certifications or college credits at almost any college or university through accredited distance education programs.
It's hard to match the edutainment value of classroom training programs with an e-learning experience. E-learning can be a disappointing alternative to some learners. In some situations, companies may want to introduce e-learning slowly or in stages. Ironically, the best place to introduce e-learning may be in a traditional classroom program. Introducing e-learning as follow-up instructional support to a traditional program is one way to expose employees to e-learning in a non-threatening way. Rather than being viewed as a take-away, follow-up e-learning programs are viewed as a benefit and support to existing learning initiatives. It also lets employees sample e-learning without having to forfeit participation in traditional programs. Companies may also offer e-learning as an alternative to traditional programs when scheduling conflicts prevent attendance to a classroom program. In this way, the entire organization is exposed to e-learning programs and employees retain choice over instructional delivery.
Access to e-learning is another key factor to consider. The number of employees using computers in their homes and at work is increasing. Do your employees have access to computers and, more important, can they access the full range of multimedia on their computer? To address those issues, companies may consider setting up instructional labs or learning environments where employees can access courseware and IT support.
Some key questions to ask clients or employees when evaluating e-learning include
* Do employees take responsibility for their own learning?
* How will employees be informed of e-learning opportunities and benefits?
* How will e-learning be integrated into current work responsibilities?
* Do all employees have access to e-learning programs?
* Do computers have the hardware capability to support multimedia instructional delivery?
* Do employees have the required skills to navigate e-learning programs?
* What initial and follow-up support will employees need to use e-learning programs?
* Will employees accept e-learning as an instructional strategy or as an alternative to traditional classroom-based programs?
* What recognition and reward programs are available to encourage and support e-learning?
* Who will be eligible for e-learning programs?
* What regulation or limitations need to be implemented in conjunction with e-learning opportunities?
Each success factor--each of the five Cs--requires individual consideration, as well as an evaluation of the interplay between factors. Initially, issues should be discussed separately to provide training professionals and business leaders with a starting point to evaluate e-learning initiatives. Next, it's important to take a close look at complex interrelationships between the factors to evaluate the merits and feasibility of the whole initiative. For example, a corporate culture that's supportive of e-learning will need to have internal IT capability and budget support. Or, clients that don't have computer access or skills will require resources to support e-learning efforts, affecting the initiative's bottom line.
Increased competition and the drive for greater productivity is forcing many companies to explore new learning and employee development models. E-learning is one model that has the potential to enhance employee learning and development programs, but it may not be right for every company or learning situation. Examining corporate culture, instructional content, organizational capability, cost, and clients can determine whether e-learning is the appropriate choice.
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