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بخش اول: گرامر
زمان ها و ساختار معلوم/مجهول
به طور كلي زمان در انگليسي به چهار دسته ي حال ، گذش ته، آينده و آينده در گذشته تقسيم مي شود، كه هر يك شامل چهار گروه ساده، استمر اري، كامل
ساده و كامل استمراري مي باشد. درنتيجه در زبان انگليسي 16 زمان به شرح زير وجود دارد:
حال ساده
گذشته استمراري
آينده كامل ساده
آينده در گذشته كامل استمراري
در اين مبحث، از توضيح صورت هاي ديگر زمان آينده در گذشته به دليل پيروي از قوانين زمان آينده و نيز همپوشاني داشتن با مباحث شرطي ه ا و نقل قول
غير مستقيم خودداري شده است.
-1 حال ساده:
فاعل + (to . ... + فعل ساده (مصدر بدون
كاربرد زمان حال ساده:
همراه است. (every day, always, often, sometimes, never, …) 1) بيان كارهاي عادي و تكراري كه معمولا با قيود تكرار
“Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.”
“When does the train usually leave?”
2) بيان واقعيت و حقايق علمي. توجه كنيد كه لزومي ندارد مطلبي كه گوينده فكر مي كند درست است، حقيقت داشته باشد.
“Windows are made of glass.”
“New York is a small city.”
3) كارهايي كه در آينده ي نزديك به طور قطع صورت مي گيرند (مثل جدول زماني.)
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“The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.”
“When does class begin tomorrow?”
(first...then, after that) . 4) كارهايي كه در زمان حال يكي پس از ديگري روي مي دهند
“First I get up, then I have breakfast.”
5) بيان دستور العمل.
“Open your books at page 34.”
6) با افعال غير حركتي كه اگرچه بيانگر مفهو مي ادامه دار در زمان حال هستند، اما معمولاً با زمان حال استمراري به كار ن مي روند . اين افعال شامل افعال
حسي، افعال ربطي، و افعال مربوط به ادراك و تملك هستند. مانند:
“be, believe, belong, hate, hear, like, love, mean, prefer, remain, realize, see, seem, smell, think, understand,
want, wish, …”
“He needs help right now.”
“Do you have your passport with you?”
ساختار معلوم/ مجهول:
ACTIVE: Once a week, Tom cleans the car.
PASSIVE: Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom.
-2 زمان حال استمراري:
فاعل + am/ is/ are + فعل ing + ... .
كاربرد زمان حال استمراري:
1) بيان كارهايي كه در لحظه ي صحبت در حال انجام شدن (يا نشدن) هستند.
“Peter is reading a book now.”
“Why aren’t you doing your homework?”
2) بيان كارهايي كه قرار است به طور قطع در آينده ي نزديك انجام شوند.
“I am meeting some friends after work.”
4) بيان كارهاي طولاني تر و ادامه داري كه در هر زماني ممكن است انجام شوند و الزاماً در همان لحظه ي صحبت در حال رخ دادن نيستند.
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“I am studying to become a doctor.”
Are you working on any special projects at work?
5) بيان گرايشات.
“More and more people are using their computers to listen to music.”
براي بيان كارهايي كه مرتب تكرار مي شوند و براي گوينده آزاردهنده هستند. ،“always” 6) به همراه
“I don’t like them because they are always complaining.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
ACTIVE: Right now, Tom is writing the letter.
PASSIVE: Right now, the letter is being written by Tom.
-3 زمان حال كامل:
فاعل + have/has + p.p. + ... .
كاربرد زمان حال كامل:
1) بيان كاري كه در گذشته اي نامعلوم صورت گرفته است. از اين زمان براي بيان تجربيات، تغييرات تدريجي، دستاوردها، كارهاي ناتم امي كه گوينده انتظار
دارد روي دهند و همچنين كارهايي كه چندين بار طي زمان هاي مختلف اتفاق افتاده است، استفاده مي شود.
Experience: I think I have seen that movie before.
Change Over Time: The government has become more interested in arts education.
Accomplishments : Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.
An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting: Bill has still not arrived.
Multiple Actions at Different Times: We have had many major problems while working on this project.
2) بيان كارهايي كه به تازگي به پايان رسيده اند.
“He has just played handball.” (It is over now.)
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3) به همراه افعالي كه حالت استمرار ندارند، براي بيان كاري كه در گذشته انجام شده و تا زمان حال ادامه داشته باشد . در اين حالت معمولا يكي از حروف
به كار مي رود. “for” يا “since” اضافه ي
“Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
ACTIVE: Many tourists have visited that castle.
PASSIVE: That castle has been visited by many tourists.
-4 زمان حال كامل استمراري:
فاعل + have/has + been + فعل ing +... .
كاربرد زمان حال كامل استمراري:
1) بيان اعمالي كه در گذشته شروع شده و به زمان حال رسيده و همچنان در حال انجام شدن است. تأكيد بر خود عمل است نه نتيجه ي آن.
“What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?”
“James has been teaching at the university since June.”
همراه است. “recently” يا “lately” 2) بدون ذكر مدت انجام آن كار، براي بيان كاري كه اخيراً انجام شده است. معمولاً با
“She has been watching too much television lately.”
“Mary has been feeling a little depressed.”
ساختار معلوم/ مجهول:
ACTIVE: Recently, John has been doing the work.
PASSIVE: Recently, the work has been being done by John.
-5 زمان گذشته ي ساده:
. ... + زمان گذشته ي فعل + فاعل
كاربرد زمان گذشته ي ساده:
1) بيان كاري كه در گذشته ي معيني شروع شده و پايان يافته است.
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“I saw a movie yesterday.”
2) بيان زنجيره اي از كارهايي كه در گذشته انجام شده است.
“He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.”
4) كاري كه در گذشته به صورت مكرر انجام شده است.
“She worked at the movie theater after school.”
3) به همراه زمان گذشته ي استمراري؛ بيان كاري در گذشته كه يك عمل ادامه دار در گذشته (گذشته ي استمراري) را قطع كرده است.
“They were having dinner when the telephone rang.”
6) بيان حقايق كلي در گذشته.
“People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
ACTIVE: Tom repaired the car.
PASSIVE: The car was repaired by Tom.
براي بيان عادات و وضعيت هايي به كار مي رود كه براي مدتي در گذشته وجود داشته اند اما اكنون موجود نيستند. “used to + نكته: ساختار ”فعل ساده
“I used to smoke, but now I’ve stopped.”
:“used to” طرز منفي و سؤالي كردن
مي باشد. “never” استفاده مي شود. حالت رايج تر منفي كردن اين جمله ها، كاربرد “did...used” از “did...use” اغلب براي سؤالي و منفي كردن، به جاي
“What did people use(d) to do in the evening before TV?”
“I didn’t use(d) to like opera, but now I do.”
“I never used to like opera.”
-6 گذشته ي استمراري:
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فاعل + was/were + فعل ing + ... .
كاربرد زمان گذشته ي استمراري:
1) بيان كاري كه در زمان يا دوره ي معيني در گذشته ادامه داشته است.
“Peter was reading a book yesterday evening.”
2) به همراه زمان گذشته ي ساده، براي بيان كار ادامه داري در گذشته كه توسط كار ديگري يا زمان معيني قطع شده است.
“While I was writing the email, the computer suddenly went off.”
“At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.”
3) بيان كارهايي كه همزمان با هم در گذشته مدتي ادامه داشته اند.
“Anne was writing a letter while Steve was reading the New York Times.”
4) از زمان گذشته ي استمراري همچنين براي بيان كارهايي كه مرتب تكرار مي شده اند و براي گوينده آزاردهنده هستند ، استفاده مي شود ( به همراه قيود
.(always, constantly, forever, ...
“He was constantly talking. He annoyed everyone.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
ACTIVE: The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
PASSIVE: The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
-7 زمان گذشته ي كامل:
فاعل + had + p.p. + ... .
كاربرد زمان گذشته ي كامل:
1) بيان كاري كه قبل از كار ديگري يا زمان معيني در گذشته انجام شده باشد.
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“She only understood the movie because she had read the book.”
“Kristine had never been to an opera before last night.”
2) به همراه زمان گذشته ي ساده، براي بيان كاري كه قبل از كار ديگري در گذشته انجام گرفته است.
“Mary had read the book before she watched a film.”
“After Amy had gone home it started to rain.”
3) همچنين براي بيان مدت زماني كه عملي در گذشته طول كشيده است؛ اين كاربرد معادل زمان حال كامل است و با افعالي كه حالت استمر اري ندارند
به كار مي رود. (be, have, know,...)
“She told me that her father had been ill since Christmas.”
“By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
ACTIVE: George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic’s license.
PASSIVE: Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic’s license.
-8 زمان گذشته ي كامل استمراري:
فاعل + had + been + فعل ing + ... .
كاربرد زمان گذشته ي كامل استمراري:
1) بيان كاري كه قبل از عمل يا زماني در گذشته مدتي ادامه داشته است.
“She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business.”
2) بيان علت و معلول در گذشته.
“Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
ACTIVE: Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant’s fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
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PASSIVE: The restaurant’s fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved
to Paris.
-9 زمان آينده ي ساده:
فاعل + will/shall+ (to . ... + فعل ساده (مصدر بدون
فاعل + am/is/are +going to + . ... + فعل ساده
:“will” كاربرد
1) بيان اعمالي كه در آينده بدون قصد و اراده ي گوينده انجام شوند (جشن تولد، آب و هوا، ...)
“The sun will shine tomorrow.”
“Peter will be 15 next Tuesday.”
( believe, doubt, expect, hope, be afraid, ... 2) بيان اميدها، ترديدها، انتظارات و افكار مربوط به آينده (بعد از افعال
“I think Sue will arrive in Paris at 6 p.m.”
3) تصميم گيري به انجام كاري كه از قبل براي آن برنامه ريزي نشده است.
“Hang on! I’ll have a word with you.”
4) قول به انجام يا عدم انجام كاري دادن:
“I promise I will not tell him about the surprise party.”
“I won’t tell anyone your secret.”
:“be going to” كاربرد
1) بيان كاري در آينده كه از قبل براي آن برنامه ريزي شده است.
“Michelle is going to begin medical school next year.”
2) بيان عملي در آينده كه گوينده نسبت به وقوع آن اطمينان دارد.
“Look at that car! It is going to crash into the yellow one.”
استفاده كرد. “be going to” و “will” نكته: براي پيش بيني وقايع در آينده، مي توان از هر دو ساختار
“The movie “Zenith” will win several Academy Awards.”
“The movie “Zenith” is going to win several Academy Awards.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
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ACTIVE: John will finish the work by 5:00 p.m.
PASSIVE: The work will be finished by 5:00 p.m.
ACTIVE: Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
PASSIVE: A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
-10 زمان آينده ي استمراري:
فاعل + will/shall/ be going to + be + فعل ing + ... .
كاربرد زمان آينده ي استمراري:
1) بيان كاري كه در زمان يا دوره ي معيني از آينده در حال انجام باشد.
“When I come to school, the other kids will be waiting for me.”
2) بيان كاري كه به صورت روزمره انجام خواهد شد.
“We’ll be going to the movies on Saturday.”
3) بيان كاري ادامه دار كه توسط عمل يا زمان معيني در آينده قطع شود.
“I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight.”
“At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert.”
4) بيان دو كار همزمان در آينده.
“I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
ACTIVE: At 8:00 p.m. tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
PASSIVE: At 8:00 p.m. tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
ACTIVE: At 8:00 p.m. tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
PASSIVE: At 8:00 p.m. tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
-11 زمان آينده ي كامل:
فاعل + will/shall/ be going to + have + p.p. + ... .
در اين زمان تفاوت معنايي زيادي ايجاد نمي كند. “be going to” يا “will” نكته: استفاده از
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كاربرد زمان آينده ي كامل:
1) بيان تكميل كاري قبل از زمان يا كار ديگري در آينده.
“By next November, I will have received my promotion.”
“Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing?”
“Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon.”
نكته: توجه كنيد كه در عبارات زماني (عباراتي كه با قيود زمان شروع مي شوند) نمي توان از زمان آينده استفاده كرد. در نتيجه، در دو مثال بالا، زمان افعال
به جاي آينده ي ساده، حال ساده است. “leaves” و “moves”
2) به همراه افعالي كه حالت استمرار ندارند، براي بيان كاري كه در گذشته آغاز شده و پس از مدتي در آينده به پايان خواهد رسيد.
“I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.”
“By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
ACTIVE: They will have completed the project before the deadline.
PASSIVE: The project will have been completed before the deadline.
ACTIVE: They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
PASSIVE: The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
-12 زمان آينده ي كامل استمراري:
فاعل + will/shall/ be going to + have been + فعل ing + ... .
كاربرد زمان آينده ي كامل استمراري:
همراه است. “since” يا “for” 1) بيان تكميل يك كار ادامه دار پيش از زمان يا كار ديگري در آينده كه معمولاً با حروف اضافه ي
“She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes.”
“How long will you have been studying when you graduate?”
2) بيان علت چيزي در آينده.
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“Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour.”
“Claudia’s English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English
in the United States for over two years.”
ساختار معلوم/مجهول:
ACTIVE: The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
PASSIVE: The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is
finished.
ACTIVE: The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
PASSIVE: The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is
finished.
-13 زمان آينده در گذشته ي ساده:
اگرچه اين دو ساختار . “was/were going to” و “would” : زمان آينده در گذشته مي تواند مانند زمان آينده ي ساده با دو ساختار متفاوت به كار رود
گاهي به جاي هم به كار مي روند، اما اغلب داراي تفاوت معنايي هستند.
:“would” ساختار
فاعل + would/should + (to . ... + فعل ساده (مصدر بدون
“I knew you would(not) help him.”
:“was/were going to” ساختار
فاعل + was/were + going to+ (to . ... + فعل ساده (مصدر بدون
“I knew you were(not) going to go to the party.”
كاربرد زمان آينده در گذشته ي ساده:
اين زمان براي بيان كاري كه در گذشته ، گوينده فكر مي كرده است در آينده روي مي دهد، به كار مي رود و اهميتي ندارد كه آن كار در آينده اتفاق افتاده باشد
براي بيان تمايل يا عدم تمايل به انجام كاري و “would” يا خير . زمان آينده در گذشته از همان قوانين زمان آينده ي ساده پيروي مي كند، به اين صورت كه
براي بيان كاري كه در آينده با قصد قبلي “was going to” به كار مي رود و از (voluntary action) تصميم گيري در مورد انجام كاري در لحظه ي گفتگو
همراه است، استفاده مي شود. هر دو ساختار را مي توان براي پيش بيني وقوع كاري در آينده به كار برد.
PLAN: I told you he was going to come to the party.
VOLUNTARY ACTION: I knew Julie would make dinner.
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PLAN: Jane said Sam was going to bring his sister with him, but he came alone.
PREDICTION: I had a feeling that the vacation was going to be a disaster.
PROMISE: He promised he would send a postcard from Egypt.
when, while, before, after, by the time, as ) نكته: توجه كنيد كه در عبارات زماني از زمان آينده استفاده نمي شود. در نتيجه، بعد از قيود زماني
به جاي زمان آينده در گذشته ي ساده از زمان گذشته ي ساده استفاده مي شود. ،(soon as, if, unless,...
“I already told Mark that when he would arrive, we would go out for dinner.” Not Correct
“I already told Mark that when he arrived, we would go out for dinner.” Correct
ساختار معلوم/ مجهول:
ACTIVE: I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 p.m.
PASSIVE: I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 p.m.
ACTIVE: I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner.
PASSIVE: I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally.
حروف تعريف:
:“The” • كاربرد حرف تعريف معين
1) پيش از اسمي كه براي گوينده و شنونده معلوم باشد.
“What did you do with the coffee I bought?”
.(the sun, the moon, the world, the universe, the future, the government, ...) 2) پيش از اسامي منحصر به فرد
“People used to think the earth was flat.”
3) پيش از ص فات و قيود عالي، چون از بين گروهي كه مد نظر است، تنها يكي داراي صفت برترين است . به همين دليل نيز معمولا قبل از
استفاده مي شود. “the” از حرف تعريف ،“first, next, last, same, only, ...”
“I’m the oldest in my family.”
4) بعد از يك اسم مخصوص، براي اينكه نشان دهيم منظور ما شخص معروفي است.
“I’d like you to meet Cathy Parker, the novelist.”
5) پيش از اسامي مفرد قابل شمارش براي اشاره ي كلي، مانند اسامي اختراعات، آلات موسيقي و... .
“Life would be quieter without the telephone.”
6) صحبت از يك گروه خاص به عنوان يك واحد شناخته شده (دقت كنيد كه در مورد اشاره ي كلي به اعضاي يك گروه از حرف تعريف استفاده نمي شود).
“The railways are getting more and more unreliable.”
اما:
“It’s difficult for railways to make a profit.”
.(the town, the country, the seaside, the rain, the night, the weather,...) 7) پيش از محيط هاي فيزيكي
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“My husband loves the seaside, but I prefer the mountains.”
8) پيش از اسا مي مفرد قابل شمارشي كه بخشي از زندگي روزمره هستند . در اين حالت منظور چيزي نيست كه براي شنونده شناخته شده باشد، بلكه منظور
.“the bus, the hairdresser, the bath, the newspaper,...” آن است كه ديگران نيز آنچه را كه در موردش حرف مي زنيم، تجربه كرده اند. مانند
“I have some of my best ideas when I am on the bus.”
“Most of my friends go to the hairdresser two or three times a month.”
the ) بيابا نها ،(the Rhine) رودخان هها ،(the West Indies) مجموعه جزاير ،(the Himalayas) رشته كوه ها ،(the Atlantic) 9) پيش از اسامي درياها
.(the British Museum) و بيشتر موزه ها (the Odeon) بيشتر سينماها و تئاترها ،(the Grand Hotel) بيشتر هتل ها ،(Sahara
10 ) پيش از اسامي زمان:
“the beginning, the middle, the end,...” ( الف
“at present” اما “the past, the present, the future” ( ب
“at noon, at midnight” اما “in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening” ( ج
معمولاً حذف مي شود.) “the” اگر مفهوم كلي مد نظر باشد ) “in the winter, in the spring,...” ( د
پيش از اسامي اعياد به كار نمي رود: “the” : نكته
.“the Fourth of July” اما “Thanksgiving, Christmas, Easter”
“the top, the bottom, the middle, the back, the outside,...” : 11 ) پيش از قيود مكان
با اسم هايي كه به مكان خاصي در محيط اشاره مي كنند، به كار نمي رود: “the” : نكته
“church, school, college, prison, jail, home, downtown,...”
“the university” اما
12 ) در ساختارهاي داراي دو صفت تفضيلي:
“The greater the challenge is, the more she likes it.”
13 ) پيش از اسامي مكان ها:
“the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the British Commonwealth” ( الف
:“of” ب) اسامي خاص با
“the Republic of China, the Gulf of Mexico, the State of New York”
14
ج) اسامي جمع:
“The United States, the Rocky Mountains, the Great Lakes”
د) نقاط خاصي در كره ي زمين:
“the North Pole, the equator, the Southern Hemisphere”
:“by” 14 ) با واحد اندازه گيري به همراه
“Do you sell eggs by the kilo or by the dozen?”
اما:
“sixty pence a kilo, thirty miles an hour, twice a week,...”
:“a/an” • كاربرد حرف تعريف نامعين
1) صحبت از يك شخص يا يك چيز:
“My brother’s married to a doctor.”
2) پيش از اسامي مفرد قابل شمارش براي بيان مفهوم كلي:
“A doctor must like people.”
3) براي دسته بندي كردن و توضيح معناي يك كلمه:
“A glider is a plane with no engine”
4) براي توصيف اسامي:
“That was a lovely evening.”
:“what” 5) در جملات تعجبي بعد از
به همراه كلمات غيرقابل شمارش به كار نمي رود). “a/an”) “What nonsense!” اما “What a lovely dress!”
• مواردي كه حروف تعريف به كار نمي رود:
1) پيش از اسامي جمع و اسامي غيرقابل شمارش در مفهوم كلي:
“As a doctor, he usually works long hours.”
“Her coat is made of pure wool.”
2) به همراه برخي اصطلاحات رايج:
15
“by day, at night, by bus, on foot, by mail,...”
نكته: در جملات زير، به تفاوت معنايي هنگام استفاده و عدم استفاده از حرف تعريف توجه كنيد:
“I met her at college.” (when we were students)
“I’ll meet you at the college.” (The college is just a meeting place.)
3) با اسمي كه قبل از آن يك صفت ملكي، صفت اشاره، يا يك صفت كمي بيايد.
“John’s coat, this magazine, some money,...”
:“last/next + 4) قبل از ”زمان
“Where were you last Saturday?”
: “all” و “both” 5) معمولا بعد از
“Both (the) children are good at math.”
“All (the) three brothers were arrested.”
“all day, all night, all week,...” : همچنين
6) قبل از اسامي قاره ها، كشورها، ايالات، وزارات، شهرها، خيابان ها، درياچه ها:
“Africa, Brazil, Texas, Oxford, New Street, Lake Michigan,...”
7) قبل از رشته هاي تحصيلي:
“history, chemistry, music, economics, English,...”
نكته: اگر رشته ي تحصيلي در توصيف يك اسم ديگر بيايد، از حرف تعريف استفاده مي شود.
“She’s taking a chemistry course.”
فعل دوم بعد از فعل اول
به كار مي رود و تفاوت “to” يا بدون “to” دار و هم به صورت مصدر با “ing” در اين مبحث تنها به بررسي افعالي مي پردازيم كه فعل بعد از آن ها هم به صورت
معنايي ايجاد مي كند.
: “forget” و “remember” (1
و “I’ll never forget...ing” اغلب به صورت عبارت “forget...ing” . به گذشته اشاره دارد؛ به كارهايي كه در گذشته انجام شده است :“ing” به همراه
ديگر اصطلاحات با معاني مشابه به كار مي رود.
16
I still remember buying my first bicycle.
I’ll never forget meeting the Queen.
به آينده اشاره دارد؛ به كارهايي كه شخص در لحظه ي به ياد آوردن يا فراموش كردن هنوز بايد انجام دهد يا انجام مي داده است. :“to” به همراه مصدر با
You must remember to fetch Mr. Lewis from the station tomorrow.
I forgot to buy the soap.
:“go on” (2
به معني ”ادامه دادن“. :“ing” به همراه
She went on talking about her illness until we all went to sleep.
به تغيير فعاليت اشاره دارد. :“to” به همراه مصدر با
She stopped talking about that and went on to describe her other problems.
:“regret” (3
به گذشته اشاره دارد؛ به كاري كه شخص از انجام آن پشيمان است. :“ing” به همراه
I regret leaving school at 14; it was a big mistake.
اغلب در مورد اعلام اخبار ناخوشايند به كار مي رود. :“to” به همراه مصدر با
We regret to inform passengers that the 14.50 train is one hour late.
:“permit” و “allow” ،“permit” ،“advise” (4
دار به كار مي رود. در صورت وجود مفعول، فعل دوم به صورت مصدر با “ing” در وجه معلوم و در صورت نداشتن مفعول، فعل دوم بعد از اين افعال به صورت
به كار مي رود. “to”
“I wouldn’t advise taking the car; there’s nowhere to park.”
“I wouldn’t advise you to take the car; there’s nowhere to park.”
“We don’t allow/permit smoking in the lecture room.”
“We don’t allow/permit people to smoke in the lecture room.”
“The headmistress has forbidden singing in the corridors.”
“The headmistress has forbidden children to sing in the corridors.”
به صورت هاي مجهول اين جملات توجه كنيد:
“Smoking is not allowed/permitted in the lecture room.”
“People are not allowed to smoke in the lecture room.”
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“Singing is forbidden.”
“Children are forbidden to sing.”
“Early booking is advised.”
“Passengers are advised to book early.”
:“see” و “watch” ،“hear” (5
دار بيانگر “ing” مفعول“ مثل تفاوت بين زمان هاي استمراري با زما نهاي ساده است. صورت + to مفعول“ و ”مصدر بدون + ing” بعد از اين افعال، تفاوت بين
اغلب به كارهاي تمام شده اي اشاره مي كند “to” اين است كه شخص به كارهايي كه در آن لحظه در حال روي دادن هستند ت وجه مي كند. ساختار مصدر بدون
كه از ابتدا تا انتها ديده يا شنيده شده اند.
“I looked out of the window and saw Mary crossing the road.”
“I saw Mary cross the road and disappear into the post office.”
“As I passed his house I heard him practicing the piano.”
“I once heard Brendel play all the Beethoven concertos.”
:“try” (6
به معني امتحان كردن؛ كاري را انجام مي دهيم تا نتيجه ي آن را ببينيم. :“ing” به همراه
“I tried sending her flowers, writing her letters, giving her presents, but she still wouldn’t speak to me.”
به معني تلاش كردن براي انجام يك كار دشوار. :“to” يا مصدر با “ing” به همراه
“I tried to change the wheel, but my hands were too cold.”
“I tried changing the wheel, but my hands were too cold.”
:“mean” (7
به معني ”متضمن بودن“. ،“have as a result” يا “involve” مترادف :“ing” به همراه
“If you want to pass the exam, it will mean studying hard.”
به معني ”قصد داشتن“. ،“intend” مترادف :“to” به همراه مصدر با
“I don’t think she means to get married for the moment.”
:“stop” (8
فعل“ براي بيان هدف و منظور نيز به + to دار به كار مي رود، مي توانند در ساختار ”مصدر با “ing” كه فعل بعد از آن ها به صورت “stop” بعضي از افعال مانند
كار روند.
“I stopped running.” (NOT... I stopped to run.)
“I stopped to rest.” (= ... in order to rest.)
:“be afraid” (9
ترجيح داده مي شود. “afraid of +-ing” براي بيان ترس از اتفاق هاي پيش آمدي و غير مترقبه، استفاده از ساختار
“I don’t like to drive fast because I’m afraid of crashing.”
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بدون ايجاد تفاوت معنايي استفاده كرد. “afraid + to يا ”مصدر با “afraid of +-ing” در موارد ديگر مي توان از هر دو ساختار
“I’m not afraid of telling/ to tell her the truth.”
:“sorry” (10
براي اشاره به كارهايي در گذشته كه شخص از انجام آ نه ا پشيمان است به كار “sorry + to يا ”مصدر كامل با “sorry for/about + -ing” ساختار هاي
مي رود.
“I’m sorry for/about losing my temper this morning.”
“I’m sorry to have woken you up.”
براي عذرخواهي كردن در مورد وضعيت كنوني به كار مي رود. “sorry + to ساختار ”مصدر با
“I’m sorry to tell you that you failed the exam.”
:“sure” و “certain” (11
براي اشاره به احساسات شخصي كه گوينده دارد در موردش حرف مي زند به كار مي رود. “certain/sure of +-ing” ساختار
“You seem very sure of passing the exam. I hope you’re right.”
براي اشاره به احساسات خود گوينده يا نويسنده به كار مي رود. “certain/sure + to ساختار”مصدر با
“The repairs are certain to cost more than you think.” (NOT The repair are certain of costing... .)
“Mary is sure to win; the other girl doesn’t have a chance.”
مي باشد. “I am sure that Marry will win.” به معني “Mary is sure to win” : نكته
جملات شرطي
1) شرطي نوع اول: درباره ي كاري كه ممكن است در آينده رخ دهد يا ندهد.
ساختار شرطي نوع اول:
if + present will + infinitive
استفاده كرد. به نمون ههاي زير توجه كنيد. (modals) در اين ساختار مي توان از صورت هاي مختلف زمان حال و يا افعال وجهي
“If John studies, he will pass the test.”
“If John is studying, he’s going to pass the test.”
“If John has studied, he should pass the test.”
“If John has been studying, he might pass the test.”
“If John can study, he is ought to pass the test.”
همچنين مي توان در بند جواب شرط از جملات امري يا زمان حال ساده هم استفاده كرد.
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“If it is hot, open the window.”
“If you raise the temperature, the water boils.”
استفاده از هر كدام از زمان هاي اشاره شده بر پايه ي مقصود گوينده/نويسنده است و مي توان آن ها را جا به جا كرد.
را به اول جمله آورد. در اين صورت جمله ي خبري داراي ساختار سؤالي مي شود “should” را حذف كرد و فعل كمكي “if” نكته: در ا ين نوع شرطي مي توان
اما تغييري در معناي جمله به وجود نمي آيد.
“Should you change your mind, ... .” (= If you should change...)
2) شرطي نوع دوم: در باره ي كاري كه احتمال روي دادن آن در زمان حال (يا آينده) وجود ندارد. به بيان ديگر، براي شرايط فرضي، خيالي يا غيرواقعي.
ساختار شرطي نوع دوم:
if + past would + infinitive without to
در اين ساختار مي توان از صورت هاي مختلف زمان گذشته و يا افعال وجهي استفاده كرد. به نمونه هاي زير توجه كنيد.
“If John studied, he would pass the test.”
“If John was studying, he could pass the test.”
“If John could study, he might pass the test.”
هم مي توان به جاي ديگر افعال وجهي استفاده كرد. “should” از
“If John studied, he should pass the test.”
استفاده مي كنيم. “were” از “was” به جاي “if” نكته: در اين نوع شرطي، بعد از
“If I were rich, I would spend all my time traveling. ”
را به اول جمله آورد . در اين صو رت جمله ي خبري داراي ساختار سؤالي مي شود اما “were” را حذف كرد و فعل كمكي “if” نكته: در اين نوع شرطي مي توان
تغييري در معناي جمله به وجود نمي آيد.
Were he home now, you could call him.” (= If he were home now, …)”
3) شرطي نوع سوم: در مواردي كه كاري در گذشته انجام نشده است و يا اتفاقي كه امكان وقوع آن در زمان حال يا آينده ديگر وجود ندارد، به كار مي رود.
(گذشته ي غير واقعي)
ساختار شرطي نوع سوم:
if + past perfect would have + past participle
هم استفاده كرد. “might” و “could” ,“should” از ،“would” در اين ساختار مي توان به جاي
“If John had studied, he would have passed the test.”
“If John had been studying, he could have passed the test.”
“If John had studied, he should have passed the test.”
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“If John had been studying, he might have passed the test.”
را به اول جمله آورد . در اين صورت جمله ي خبري داراي ساختار سؤالي مي شود اما “had” را حذف كرد و فعل كم كي “if” نكته: : در اين نوع شرطي مي توان
تغييري در معناي جمله به وجود نمي آيد.
“Had I known you wanted to talk to me, I wouldn’t have left the office.” (= if I had known…)
نكته: در ساختار بالا، صورت منفي فعل، مخفف نمي شود.
“Had we not missed the plane, we would all have been killed in the crash.” (NOT Hadn’t we missed...)
4) شرطي تركيبي: گاهي شرطي هاي غير واقعي با هم تركيب مي شوند، به اين معني كه زمان بند شرط با زمان بند جواب شرط، يكي نيست.
PAST PRESENT
If I had taken French in high school, I would have more job opportunities.
(But I didn’t take French in high school and I don’t have many job opportunities.)
PAST FUTURE
If she had signed up for the ski trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow.
(But she didn’t sign up for the ski trip last week and she isn’t going to join us tomorrow.)
PRESENT PAST
If Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you.
(But Sam doesn’t speak Russian and that is why he didn’t translate the letter.)
PRESENT FUTURE
If Dan weren’t so nice, he wouldn’t be tutoring you in math tonight.
(But Dan is nice and he is going to tutor you tonight.)
FUTURE PAST
If I weren’t going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at work.
(But I am going to go on a business trip next week, and that is why I didn’t accept that new assignment at work.)
FUTURE PRESENT
If Sandy were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous.
(But Sandy is not going to give a speech tomorrow and that is why she in not nervous.)
• نكات مهم ديگر:
مي توان از ساير ادوات شرط نيز استفاده كرد: “if” 1) در جملات شرطي غير از
“provided/providing (that), on (the) condition (that), as/so long as, even if, if only, assuming (that), suppose/supposing
(that), what if, imagine,...”
مي باشد. “if...not” و مترادف « مگر اينكه » به معني “unless” (2
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“Come tomorrow unless I phone.” (= if I do not phone.)
به كار “unless” ، مد نظر باشد “because...not” باشد. اگر مفهوم “except if” شود كه مترادف “if...not” تنها مي تواند در مواردي جايگزين “unless”
برده نمي شود.
“I’ll drive over and see you, unless the car breaks down.” (= ... expect if the car breaks down.)
“I’ll be surprised if the car doesn’t break down soon.” (NOT I’ll be surprised unless the car breaks down soon - I’ll be
surprised because it doesn’t break down.)
ضماير موصولي
مي پردازيم. (who/whom/which/where/whose/when...) در اين مبحث تنها به بررسي نكات مهم استفاده از ضماير موصولي
غير رسمي) شود. رايج ترين ترتيب قرار گرفتن اين ضماير در جمله به صورت ) “that...of” يا “of which” مي تواند جايگزين “whose” 1) ضمير موصولي
هم صحيح مي باشد. “of which + است، اما ساختار ”اسم “that...of” اسم“ يا + of which”
“He’s written a book whose name I’ve forgotten.”
“He’s written a book the name of which I’ve forgotten.”
“He’s written a book that I’ve forgotten the name of.”
“He’s written a book of which I’ve forgotten the name.”
اسم“ براي اشاره به اشخاص متداول نيست. + of whom” نكته: ساختار
a man whose name I’ve forgotten ( NOT a man of whom I’ve forgotten the name)
“that...of” يا “of which/whom” تنها به عنوان صفت مالكيت قبل از اسم به كار مي رود. در موارد ديگر از ساختار “whose” نكته: صفت موصولي
استفاده مي شود.
“He’s married to an actress of whom you may have heard. “OR”... that you may have heard of.” (NOT ...an actress
whose you may have heard.)
“the thing(s) which” به اسمي كه بعد از آن بيايد اشاره نمي كند، بلكه همزمان به صورت ”ضمير موصولي + اسم“ عمل مي كند و به معني “what” (2
باشند. (“to be” شروع مي شوند مي توانند داراي نقش فاعلي، مفعولي و متمم (بعد از افعال “what” مي باشد. عباراتي كه با
“What she said made me angry.” (“made” (فاعل
“I hope you’re going to give me what I need.” (“give” (مفعول
“This is exactly what I wanted.” ( (متمم
به كار مي رود و به صورت يك ضمير موصولي عادي بعد از اسم يا ضمير به كار نمي رود. “the thing(s) which” تنها در معني “what” : نكته
“We don’t have everything that you ordered.” (NOT...everything what...)
.“what” استفاده مي كنيم نه از “which” نكته: براي اشاره به كل عبارتي كه قبل از ضمير موصولي مي آيد از
“Sally married Joe, which made Paul very unhappy.” (NOT...what made...)
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مي تواند به عنوان ضمير اشاره به همراه يك اسم به كار رود. “what” : نكته
“What money he has comes from his family.” (= The money that he has...)
مي تواند در عبارات وصفي، به عنوان ضمير اشاره به همراه اسم عامي كه معناي عبارت پيش از خود را تكرار مي كند، به كار رود. اين ساختار نسبتاً “which” (3
به كار مي رود. “at which point” و “in which case” رسمي است و به ويژه در اصطلاحات خاصي مانند
“She may be late, in which case we ought to wait for her.”
“He lost his temper, at which point I decided to go home.”
“He spoke in Greek, which language I could only follow with difficulty.”
4) حروف اضافه مي توانند يا قبل از ضماير موصولي (رسمي) يا در پايان عبارات وصفي (غير رسمي) قرار گيرند.
“He was respected by the people with whom he worked. ( (رسمي
He was respected by the people (that) he worked with. ( (غير رسمي
بعد از حروف اضافه قرار نمي گيرند. “that” و “who” : نكته
...the people with whom he worked. (NOT ... the people with who/that he worked.)
به كار روند . “of whose” و “of whom” ،“of which” مي توانند به همراه (some, any, none, enough, few...) 5) در عبارت وصفي، ضماير كميت
قرار مي گيرند، اما در ساختار بسيار رسمي مي توانند گاهي بعد از آن ها نيز به كار روند. “of which/whom/whose” اين ضماير در بيشتر موارد قبل از
“They picked up five boat-loads of refugees, some of whom had been at sea for several months.” (OR ...of whom
some had been...)
“We’ve tested three hundred types of boat, none of which is completely waterproof.” (OR...of which none...)
“She had a teddy-bear, both of whose eyes were missing.”
به كار رود. “last” و “second”،“first” ، نكته: ساختار بالا همچنين مي تواند با ديگر اصطلاحات كميت، صفات برترين
a number of whom three of which half of which
the majority of whom the youngest of whom
(inversion) ساختار پرسشي جملات خبري
در ساختار هاي زير، فعل وجهي مستقيماً پيش از فاعل يك عبارت قرار مي گيرد.
1) جملات پرسشي:
“Where is the concert taking place?” (NOT Where is taking place the concert?) (NOT Where the concert is taking
place?)
جملات پرسشي عاميانه اغلب از اين ساختار پيروي نمي كنند.
“You’re coming tomorrow?”
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جملات پرسشي غير مستقيم نيز از اين ساختار پيروي نمي كنند.
“I wondered what time the film was starting.” (NOT...what time was the film starting.)
و به ويژه هنگامي كه فاعل جمله طولاني است، استفاده مي شود. “how” در جملات پرسشي غير مستقيم بعد از “inversion” اما در نوشتار رسمي، اغلب از
“I wondered how reliable was the information I had been given.”
2) جملات تعجبي: اين جملات اغلب داراي ساختار جملات پرسشي منفي هستند.
“Isn’t it cold?”
“Hasn’t she got lovely eyes?”
در انگليسي آمريكايي محاوره اي، جملات تعجبي اغلب داراي ساختار جملات پرسشي معمولي (غير منفي) هستند.
“Have you got a surprise coming!”
“Was I mad!”
در جملات تعجبي اتفاق مي افتد. “what” و “how” بعد از “inversion” در ساختار ادبي، گاهي
“How beautiful are the flowers!”
“What a peaceful place is Skegness!
مي تواند پيش از فاعل در جملات آرزويي به كار رود. “may” :“may” 3) به همراه
“May all your wishes come true!”
:“nor” و “neither” ،“so” 4) بعد از
در پاسخ هاي كوتاه و ساختار هاي مشابه، اين كلمات پيش از ”فاعل + فعل وجهي“ قرار مي گيرند.
“I’m hungry. ∼ So am I.”
“I don’t like opera. ∼Neither/Nor do I.”
:“so” و “than” ،“as” 5) در ساختار هاي ادبي، بعد از
“She was very religious, as were most of her friends.”
“City dwellers have a higher death rate than do country people.”
“So ridiculous did he look that everybody burst out laughing.”
:“if” 6) در جملات شرطي هنگام حذف
“Were she my daughter, I would send her to the most prestigious university.” (= If she were my daughter...)
“Had I realized what you intended, I would have stopped you.” (= If I had realized...)
7) بعد از اصطلاحات منفي و محدود كننده:
هرگاه يك قيد منفي براي تأكيد در ابتداي جمله قرار گيرد، معمولاً از ساختار ”فاعل + فعل وجهي“ پيروي مي كند.
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“Under no circumstances can we cash checks.”
“Not until much later did she learn who her real father was.”
نيز اتفاق مي افتد. “only + و ”عبارات زماني “never”،“little”،“rarely”،“seldom ”،“hardly” بعد از قيود محدود كننده مانند “inversion” : نكته
“Hardly had I arrived when trouble started.”
“Only then did I understand what she meant.”
اتفاق نمي افتد. “not long...” و “not far...” بعد از “inversion” : نكته
“Not far from here you can see foxes.” (NOT Not far from here can you ...)
“Not long after that she got married.”
(indirect speech) نقل قول غير مستقيم
1) تغييرات زماني بعد از افعال ناقل گذشته:
will → would
DIRECT: The exam will be difficult.
INDIRECT: They said the exam would be difficult.
گذشته ي ساده → حال ساده
DIRECT: I need help.
INDIRECT: She thought she needed help.
گذشته ي استمراري →حال استمراري
DIRECT: My English is getting better.
INDIRECT: I knew my English was getting better.
گذشته ي كامل → حال كامل
DIRECT: This has been a wonderful holiday.
INDIRECT: She told me that it had been a wonderful holiday.
گذشته ي كامل →گذشته ي ساده
DIRECT: Ann grew up in Kenya.
INDIRECT: I found out that Ann had grown up in Kenya.
can → could
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DIRECT: I can fly!
INDIRECT: Poor boy - he thought he could fly.
may → might
DIRECT: We may come back early.
INDIRECT: They said they might come back early.
زمان هاي گذشته ي كامل تغييري نمي كنند.
DIRECT: I arrived late because I had lost the address.
INDIRECT: He said he had arrived late because he had lost the address.
صورت نمي گيرد. (would, could,...) 2) در نقل قول غير مستقيم، معمولا تغييري در زمان افعال وجهي گذشته
DIRECT: It would be nice if we could meet.
INDIRECT: He said it would be nice if we could meet.
به كار نمي رود. “do” 3) در نقل قول غير مستقيم جملات پرسشي، فاعل پيش از فعل قرار مي گيرد و فعل وجهي
DIRECT: Where’s Alice?
INDIRECT: I asked where Alice was. (NOT...where was Alice.)
نكته: براي نقل قول پاسخ اين نوع جملات نيز از همين ساختار استفاده مي شود.
“I knew how they felt.” (NOT...how did they feel.)
“Nobody told me why I had to sign the paper.” (NOT...why did I have to sign...)
استفاده مي شود. “whether” يا “if” از ،“yes/no” 4) در نقل قول جملات پرسشي
“The driver asked if/whether I wanted the town center.”
از زمان حال استفاده نمي كنيم. “if” نكته: در نقل قول غير مستقيم جملات پرسشي، براي اشاره به زمان آينده بعد از
“I’m not sure if I’ll see her tomorrow.” (NOT...if I see her tomorrow.)
مي توانند در پاسخ نقل قول غير مستقيم به كار روند، ولي در جملات پرسشي غير مستقيم به كار نمي روند. “tell” و “say” (5
(NOT The driver said whether I wanted the town center.)
اما:
“Please say whether you want the town center.”
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“I told her what time it was.”
بيان مي شوند. “to” هستند، اغلب به صورت مصدر با (promise, agree, offer, order, advise,... ) 6) نقل قول هايي كه مرتبط با افعال حركتي
“He promised to write.”
“She agreed to wait for me.”
به كار نمي رود.) “promise” و “offer” به كار مي رود (اما با “order” و ،“tell” ،“advise” ،“ask” مفعول“ به همراه + to نكته: ساختار ”مصدر با
“I told Andrew to be careful.”
“I advise you to think again before you decide.”
مي آيند. “should” كلمات پرسشي“ اغلب در تناظر با سؤالات مستقيمي است كه به همراه + to 7) ساختار ”مصدر با
“He asked her how to make a white sauce.” (“How should I make a white sauce?”)
و معمولا به همراه افعال وجهي، “that-clauses” استفاده ن مي كنيم، بلكه در اين موارد “to” از ساختار مصدر با ،“say” و گاهي بعد از “suggest” 8) بعد از
به كار برده مي شود.
“I suggested that he should try the main car park.” (NOT I suggested him to try...)
“The policeman said that I mustn’t park there.” (NOT The policeman said me not to park there.)
نيز در مورد بعضي افعال به كار مي رود. “ing” نكته: ساختار
“I suggested trying the main car park.”
مي آيند، بعد از افعال ناقل گذشته، تغييري نمي كند. “if” و “would” 9) زمان جملاتي كه با
DIRECT: It would be best if we started early.
INDIRECT: He said it would be best if they started early.
اما زمان جملات شرطي غير واقعي به صورت زير تغيير مي كند:
DIRECT: If I had any money, I would buy you a drink.
INDIRECT: She said if she had had any money, she would have bought me a drink. (OR she said if she had any
money, she would buy...)
شروع مي شوند، مي توانند در مورد يك فاعل يا يك متمم سؤال كنند. در نقل قول غير مستقيم نوع اول (كه “who/what/which + be” 10 ) سؤالاتي كه با
در مورد فاعل سؤال مي كند)، ترتيب كلمات به صورت زير است: “who/what/which + be” ساختار
DIRECT: Which is my seat?
INDIRECT: She wondered which was her seat.
She wondered which her seat was.
در مورد متمم سؤال مي كند)، تنها از ساختار زير استفاده مي شود: “who/what/which + be” اما در مورد نوع دوم (كه ساختار
DIRECT: What’s the time?
INDIRECT: She asked what the time was. (NOT USUALLY She asked what was the time.)
“wish” ساختار و كاربرد
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:“wish + to 1)” مصدر با
و به معني ”تمايل داشتن، خواستن“ است. دقت كنيد كه زمان هاي استمراري در اين ساختار به كار نمي روند. “want” در اين ساختار معادل “wish”
“I wish to see the manager, please.” (NOT I’m wishing to see...)
مفعول“ نيز استفاده مي شود. + to نكته: از ساختار ”مصدر با
“We do not wish our names to appear in the report.”
نباشد، به كار نمي رود. “to” در حالتي كه به همراه مصدر با “wish + ساختار ”مفعول مستقيم
“I want/would like an appointment with the manager.” (NOT I wish an appointment with the manager.)
“wish + that-clause” (2
نيست، بلكه براي ابراز تأسف نسبت به وضعيت موجود به كار مي رود و به موقعيت هاي غير واقعي و ناممكن اشاره “want” به معناي “wish” ، در اين ساختار
مي كند.
“I wish (that) I was more successful at my job.”
“We all wish (that) the snow would stay forever.”
در زمان گذشته ساده صرف مي شود. “wish” نكته: براي اشاره به زمان حال يا آينده، جمله ي بعد از
“I wish I spoke French.” (= It would be nice if I spoke French.)
“I wish tomorrow was Sunday.”
استفاده كرد، كه اين كاربرد رسمي تر است. “were” از “was” نكته: در اين ساختار مي توان به جاي
“I wish that I were more successful at my job.”
در زمان گذشته ي كامل صرف مي شود. “wish” نكته: براي اشاره به زمان گذشته، جمله ي بعد از
“I wish you hadn’t said that.”
“Now she wishes she had gone to university.”
به كار مي رود. “would” ، نكته: براي ابراز تأسف يا نارضايتي در مورد اتفاقي كه در آينده رخ نخواهد داد
“I wish you would stop smoking.” (= Why don’t you stop smoking?)
“Don’t you wish that this moment would last forever?”
به كار مي روند، به اعمالي اشاره مي كنند كه در زمان حال روي مي دهد يا در آينده روي خواهد داد. “wish...wouldn’t” نكته: جملاتي كه با
“I wish you wouldn’t keep making that stupid noise.” (= You will keep making...)
مي تواند داراي مفهوم دستوري يا درخواست انتقادي باشد. جملات زير را با هم مقايسه كنيد: “wish...would(n’t)” : نكته
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“I wish you wouldn’t drive so fast.” (= Please don’t drive so fast.)
“I wish you didn’t drive so fast.” (= I’m sorry you drive so fast.)
“I wish you wouldn’t work on Sundays.” (= Why don’t you stop?)
“I wish you didn’t work on Sundays.” (= It’s a pity.)
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بخش دوم: واژگان
equip (v): آراستن، آماده كردن، ساز و برگ دادن
“The new school will be equipped with computers to improve the educational efficiency.”
achieve (v): دست يافتن ، رسيدن ، به پايان رساندن
“You’ll never achieve anything if you don’t work harder.”
measure (n,v): واحد اندازه گيري ، چاره، برنامه، اقدام ، انداز ه گرفتن ،پيمانه كردن ، سنجيد ن
“The Richter Scale is a measure of ground motion.”
“We have taken measures to limit smoking to one area in the building.”
“Will you please measure the wall to see if the bookshelves will fit?”
entrance (v): راه ورودي، راهرو
“The main entrance to the school building was overcrowded.”
realization (n): درك، فهم، تحقق، عملي شدن
“We finally came to the realization that the business wasn’t going to work.”
“The realization of a lifelong ambition relies on hard work and high spirit.”
procedure (n): روال، روند
“The company has new procedures for dealing with complaints.”
design (n,v): طرح ، نقشه ، طراحي كردن
“We’re working on designs for a new office building downtown.”
“The company is working on a video game specifically designed for children.”
devote (v): وقف كردن، اختصاص دادن، فداكردن
“He devotes much of his time to her family; he is an excellent family man.”
application (n): كاربرد، استفاده ، درخواست
“The counselor will help students fill out college applications.”
instruction (n): آموزش ، راهنمايي ، دستورالعمل
“Follow the instructions on the back of the box and you will know how to run the machine.”
“She’s never had any formal instruction in music, but she is a marvelous pianist.”
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operate (v): كار كردن، به كار انداختن، جراحي كردن
“We need to employ a team of technicians who are trained to operate the scanning equipment.”
“The engine seems to be operating very smoothly.”
“The surgeon that operated on his knee is now his close friend.”
universal (adj): همگاني، فراگير، جهاني
“Food, like safety, is a subject of almost universal interest.”
“The new reforms have not met with universal approval within the government.”
accountable (adj): جوابگو، مسئول
If anything happens to Max, I’ll hold you accountable.
surround (v): فرا گرفتن ، محاصره كردن
“We are moving to a lake house surrounded by lots of beautiful trees.”
promote (v): ترفيع دادن، ترويج كردن، پشتيباني كردن، تبليغ كردن
“The bureau’s job is to promote tourism to the area.”
“Ted was promoted to senior sales manager last week.”
“The author went on a national tour to promote her latest book.”
propose (v): پيشنهاد كردن
“Mr. Smith, the president of our university, proposed that the rules be changed.”
explicit (adj): روشن ، آشكار ، ساده
“I gave her very explicit directions as to how to get here.”
sufficient (adj): بس ، بسنده
“They had sufficient evidence to send him to prison.”
inhabit (v): ساكن شدن
“These remote islands are inhabited only by birds.”
conduct (v,n): رفتار، اجرا كردن
“I don’t think it is right to conduct experiments on animals.”
“The book club has a strict code of conduct.”
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extend (v): ادامه دادن، گسترش دادن، ادامه داشتن
“The path extends beyond the end of the road.”
“We have decided to extend our publishing of children books in the near future.”
smooth (adj): هموار، ملايم، صاف
“The river rocks had been worn smooth by the water.”
conscious (adj): هوشيار، بهوش ، آگا ه، باخبر
“When I was walking down the empty street I became conscious of the fact that someone was following me.”
“Owen was still conscious when they arrived at the hospital.”
beneficial (adj): سودمند
“The agreement will be beneficial to both groups.”
issue (n,v): موضوع، مسئله، انتشار دادن، به جريان انداختن
“Don’t worry about who will do it; that’s just a side issue.”
“The manager is expected to issue a statement later today for her employees.”
requirement (n): نياز ، نيازمندي
“The refugees’ main requirements are for food and shelter.”
enhance (v): بالابردن ، افزود ن، زيادكرد ن
“The company is looking to enhance its earnings potential.”
admire (v): پسند كردن ،تحسين كردن، آفرين گفتن
“I admired her for having the courage to tell the truth.”
urgent (adj): ضروري، فوري
“She’s in urgent need of medical attention; we should take her to the hospital right now!”
relevant (adj): مربوط ، مناسب ، وابسته
“Make sure your comments during the interview are short and relevant.”
reflect (v): بازتابيدن، بازتاباندن، انديشيدن
“We could see the mountains reflected in the calm stream.”
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“People do that sort of thing every day, without ever stopping to reflect on the consequences.”
regard (n,v): رعايت ، احترام، نگاه كردن ، به شمار آوردن
“Why don’t you try to have a little bit of regard for my feelings?”
“I’ve always regarded you as my dearest friend and have always trusted you.”
struggle (v, n): ستيز، كشاكش ، كوشش، كوشش كردن
“During the centuries, the people of Ireland struggled constantly to assert their right to govern themselves.”
“She never gave up the struggle to have her son freed from prison.”
contrast (n,v): اختلاف، تضاد، برابر نهادن، سنجيدن، فرق داشتن
“I like the contrast of the white trousers with the black jacket.”
“If you contrast some of her early writing with her later work, you can see just how much she has improved.”
“The styles of the two film makers contrast quite dramatically.”
interfere (v): دخالت كردن ،مزاحم شدن
“It’s better not to interfere in their arguments; they know how to solve it themselves.”
characteristic (n): ويژگى
“The need to communicate is a key characteristic of human society.”
notable (adj): سرشناس، برجسته
“This attractive building is particularly notable for its garden setting.”
superior (adj): برتر، بهتر، بيشتر
“The reason we bought this model is that it’s technically superior to its competitors.”
practical (adj): كابردي ، عملي
“Do you have a lot of practical experience as a mechanic?”
“Johnson’s book gives practical advice for keeping your car on the road.”
basic (adj): پايه اي ، اساسي ، بنيادين
“The campsite we went to last summer provided only basic facilities; this year we are going elsewhere.”
supply (n,v): موجودي، تداركات، فراهم كردن، برآوردن
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“A transport plane carrying food and medical supplies for refugees crashed yesterday.”
“At the beginning of the term students are supplied with a list of books they are expected to read.”
capacity (n): گنجايش ، توانايى
“This computer has a capacity of 400 gigabytes.”
attribute (n,v): ويژگي، نسبت دادن
“Many diseases of modern humans can be attributed to stress and pressure of life in a hurry.”
“Patience is one of the most crucial attributes in a teacher.”
conclude (v): به پايان رساندن، نتيجه گرفتن
“The report concluded (that) the cheapest option was to close the laboratory.”
“The commission concluded its investigation last month.”
attend (v): حضور داشتن
“More than 1,000 people attended the conference on global warming.”
estimate (v): برآورد كردن، ارزيابي كردن
“The old tree in our neighborhood is estimated to be at least 700 years old.”
compulsory (adj): اجباري
“It is compulsory for all motorcyclists to wear helmets.”
duty (n): وظيفه ، تكليف
“Parents have a duty to protect their children against both physical and mental perils.”
constant (adj): پايدار، استوار، هميشگى، پايا
“The fridge keeps food at a constant temperature.”
efficient (adj): كارآمد، كارا
“The city’s transport system is one of the most efficient in Europe.”
transfer (v): منتقل كردن
“Passengers are transferred from the airport to the hotel by the airport taxi.”
various (adj): گوناگون
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“Various people whom we weren’t expecting turned up at the meeting.”
scare (n,v): ترساندن ، گريزاندن، ترس
“A barking dog had scared the attackers away from the little child.”
“There have been scares about the water supply being contaminated.”
region (n): سرزمين، ناحيه
“He’s the company sales manager for the entire Southwest region.”
occur (v): رخ دادن
“The police investigator asked me when exactly the incident had occurred.”
endeavor (n, v): تلاش ، كوشش ، تلاش كردن ، كوشيدن
“The manager is expected to use his or her best endeavors to promote the artist’s career.”
“I will endeavor to do my best for my country.”
apparent (adj): پيدا، آشكار
“His embarrassment was apparent to everyone in the conference room.”
convert (v): برگرداندن، تبديل كردن
“We’re going to convert the unused garage into a workshop for my elder daughter.”
benefit (n,v): سود، استفاده، سودمند بودن، سود بردن
“The new credit cards will be of great benefit to our customers.”
“These policy changes mainly benefit smaller companies in rural districts.”
establish (v): بنا نهادن، برپا كردن، ساختن
“In the 1980s, the two countries began to establish trade relations.”
aspect (n): نمود، جنبه
“The committee discussed several aspects of the traffic problem.”
reward (n,v): پاداش، جايزه، پاداش دادن
“The police are offering a reward for any helpful information regarding the last week’s murder.”
“She was rewarded for her efforts to raise public awareness about animal rights with a cash bonus.”
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decisive (adj): سرنوشت ساز، تعيين كننده، قاطع، استوار
“Climate was a decisive factor in establishing where the tournament should be held.”
“The government must take decisive action on gun control.”
affect (v): اثر گذاشتن (بر)، دچار كردن
“Help is being sent to areas affected by the unforeseen floods.”
impose (v): تحميل كردن
“The time limits are imposed on us by factors outside our control.”
replace (v): جابجا كردن ، جايگزي ن كردن
“These measures in no way replace the need for regular safety checks.”
distinctive (adj): مشخص ، متمايز
“The male bird has distinctive white markings on its head.”
inevitable (adj): ناچار، ناگزير
“The accident was the inevitable consequence of his carelessness.”
announce (v): آگهي دادن، خبر دادن
“We are delighted to announce that all five candidates were successful.”
proper (adj): شايسته ، مناسب
“Please follow the proper procedures for dealing with complaints.”
approach (v,n): نزديك شدن، نزديك آمدن، ديدگاه، رويكرد
“As you approach the town, you’ll see the college on the left.”
“She took the wrong approach in her dealings with her teenage children and now she regrets it.”
disperse (v): پراكنده كردن
“When the rain came down the crowd that had gathered started to disperse.”
overcome (v): چيره شدن (بر)، پيروز شدن
“Eventually, she overcame her shyness and stood up in front of the class and delivered her speech.”
maintain (v): نگهداري كردن، ادامه دادن
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“They have always maintained high standards of professional conduct.”
register (n,v): نام نويسي كردن،ثبت كردن، ليست، ثبت آمار
“How many students have registered for the European History class so far?”
“In order to register a car in Japan, the owner must have somewhere to park it.”
“He signed the register at the hotel, and booked a room for three nights.”
inform (v): آگاهي دادن (به)، آگاه كردن، گفتن
“I am pleased to inform you that you have won first prize in this month’s competition.”
respect (n,v): احترام گذاشتن (به)، بزرگداشتن، احترام
“A deep mutual respect and understanding developed between them.”
“She had always been honest with me, and I respect her for that.”
concern (n,v): نگراني، دلواپسي، نگران كردن، ربط داشتن، درباره ي چيزي بودن، پرداختن
“The destruction of the rainforest is of concern to us all.”
“What concerns me is our lack of preparation for the change.”
“Don’t interfere in what doesn’t concern you.”
“The book is primarily concerned with Soviet-American relations during the Cold War.”
forceful (adj): استوار، نيرومند، موثر
“They have made a forceful argument in favor of changing the system.”
regular (adj): منظم، مرتب، معمولي
“I just want to buy a regular white shirt—nothing fancy.”
“She writes a regular column for a national newspaper.”
qualify (v): شايستگى پيدا كردن، مناسب بودن
“She hopes to qualify as a lawyer at the end of next year.”
encourage (v): دلگرم كردن ، تشويق كردن
“My parents have always encouraged me in my choice of career.”
compete (v): رقابت كردن
“How many runners will be competing in the Olympic marathon race this year?”
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particular (adj): ويژه، خاص
“Police say there was no particular reason why the victim was attacked.”
admit (v): پذيرفتن ، به گردن گرفتن، پذيرا شدن
“She admitted having driven the car without insurance.”
demand (n,v): درخواست ، خواسته، خواستار شدن
“Union members will strike until the company agrees to their demands.”
“The teacher demanded an immediate explanation for his being late.”
destruction (n): خرابي ، ويراني
“Many people are very concerned about the destruction of the rainforests due to unrestrained human activities.”
inspect (v): بازرسي كردن ، رسيدگي كردن
“After the crash both drivers got out and inspected their cars for damage.”
remove (v): برداشتن ، برچيدن ، بر كنار كردن
“Three children were removed from the school for persistent bad behavior.”
offend (v): دلخوركردن، رنجاندن
“She had carefully worded her comments so as not to offend anyone.”
mastery (n): استادي، خبرگي
“We were impressed by her mastery of the complex subject of quantum mechanics.”
train (n,v): تربيت كردن ، پروردن ، ورزيدن، رشته، سلسله
“An expert with a trained eye will spot the difference immediately.”
“The road was blocked by a long train of trucks.”
identify (v): شناختن ، همذات پنداري كردن
“Passengers were asked to identify their own suitcases before they were put on the plane.”
“It was easy to identify with the novel’s main character.”
hypothesis (n): فرضيه، گمانه
“Their hypothesis is that watching excessive amounts of television reduces a person’s ability to concentrate.”
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pattern (n): طرح ، الگو
“A pattern is beginning to emerge from our analysis of the accident data.”
tendency (n): گرايش
“I have a tendency to talk too much and fast when I’m nervous.”
function (n,v): كار، كاركرد، كار كردن
“Her chief function is to provide expert legal advice for the company.”
“Despite the power cuts, the hospital continued to function normally.”
arrange (v): مرتب كردن، قرارگذاشتن
“I’ve arranged with the neighbors about feeding the cat while we are away.”
purpose (n): منظور، نيت، هدف
“A meeting was called for the purpose of appointing a new supervisor.”
cue (n): نشانه، سرنخ، رهنمود
“They started washing up the dishes, so that was our cue to leave the party.”
relate (v): باز گو كرد ن، گزارش دادن ، پيوند دادن، ربط دادن
“I don’t understand how the two ideas relate; would you please elaborate a little more?”
“The novelist relates her childhood experiences in a poor family in the first chapter.”
speculate (v): انديشيدن، گمانه زني كردن
“We all speculated about the reasons for her resignation.”
specific (adj,n): ( ويژه ، مخصوص، دقيق، روشن، جزييات خاص (جمع
“This is a bird species that requires a specific environment which is found only in central parts of Australia.”
“Can you be more specific? What exactly did the policeman say?”
“Thurman was reluctant to go into specifics about the deal.”
restate (v): باز گفتن
“Even though I couldn’t remember the exact words he used, I restated his message as accurately as I could.”
invest (v): سرمايه گذاري كردن، نهادن
“He invested his life savings in his daughter’s business.”
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extensive (adj): پهناور، گسترده
“The fire has caused extensive damage to the farm house.”
ignorance (n): ناداني، ناآگاهي، بي خبري
“I would have remained in ignorance if Shaun hadn’t mentioned it.”
exaggerate (v): گزافه گويي كردن ، بزرگ كردن، زياده روي كردن
“He tends to exaggerate when talking about his accomplishments.”
valid (adj): معتبر، قانوني، درست
“My way of thinking might be different from yours, but it’s equally valid.”
express (v, adj): بيان كردن ، گفتن، سريع، ويژه، تندرو
“I would like to express my thanks for your gentle kindness.”
“An express delivery service is provided only for regular customers.”
proportion (n): بخش، نسبت
“The report shows that poor families spend a larger proportion of their income on food.”
“The level of crime in any specific area is almost always in direct proportion to the number of unemployed.”
appoint (v): گماشتن، واداشتن، تعيين كردن
“After his parents died, the boy’s uncle was appointed as his guardian.”
opportunity (n): فرصت ، مجا ل
“I’d like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who helped me make this movie.”
profession (n): پيشه ، حرفه
“Most professions in the medical field require years of training.”
construct (v): ساختن ، بنا كردن
“They constructed a shelter out of fallen branches so that the rain wouldn’t reach them.”
adjust (v): ميزان كردن ، سازگار كردن
“It took a few seconds for her eyes to adjust to the darkness.”
participate (v): شركت كردن، سهيم شدن
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“We encourage students to participate fully in the running of the college.”
embarrass (v): دست پاچه كردن ، برآشفت ن، خجال ت دادن ، شرمسار كردن
“He doesn’t feel good about his lecture; he’s worried about embarrassing himself in front of such a large audience.”
contribute (v): همكاري كردن، كمك كردن، بخشيدن
“In order for the team to win, everyone has to contribute.”
digest (v): هضم كردن، گواريدن، هضم شدن
“You should allow a little time after a meal for the food to digest.”
circulate (v): گردش كردن ، ب ه گردش در آوردن
“The condition prevents the blood from circulating freely.”
interact (v): همكاري متقابل داشتن، اثر متقابل داشتن
“The teacher told the mother that her child interacted pretty well with other children.”
context (n): زمينه ، متن، بافت
“Can students apply the skills learned in school in a different context, such as the workplace?”
formation (n): پيدايش، آرايش
“The book explains the formation of the planets thoroughly and in exact details.”
transmit (v): انتقال دادن، پراكندن، رساندن، فرستادن
“The ceremony was transmitted live by satellite to over fifty countries.”
Parents can unwittingly transmit their own fears to their children.
obtain (v): به دست آوردن
“Information about passports can be obtained from the embassy.”
combine (v): آميختن
“It seemed to us that several factors had combined to ruin our plans.”
initiate (v): آغاز كردن ، بنياد نهادن
“The prison has recently initiated new security procedures.”
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chief (adj): اصلي، بزرگ
“At this point in time, safety of our products is the chief concern.”
former (adj): پيشين
“This beautiful old building has been restored to its former glory.”
conflict (n,v): كشمك ش، نبرد، برخورد، ناسازگاري ، ناسازگار بودن
“John often comes into conflict with his boss; that might get him into deep trouble.”
“We have heard many conflicting opinions on the subject and we don’t know exactly what we should decide on.”
reasonable (adj): منطقي، خردمندانه، عادلانه، مناسب
“You must take all reasonable steps to ensure that the information that you provide is correct.”
“The hotel offers excellent accommodations at reasonable rates.”
evaluate (v): ارزيابي كردن ، سنجيدن
“It’s impossible to evaluate these results without knowing more about the research methods employed.”
resolve (v): تصميم گرفتن، بر طرف كردن، پايان دادن
“The training helps children resolve conflicts without fighting.”
“She resolved to call her friend as soon as she got home.”
outline (n,v): طر ح كلي ، فشرده، چكيده، چكيده ي ... را ارائه دادن
“The book describes in outline the main findings of the research.”
“We have already outlined our proposals to the committee and we are waiting for the result.”
concentrate (v): تمركز كردن، تمركز يافتن، گرد آوردن
“With all this noise, it’s really hard to concentrate on finding the solution with this mathematical problem.”
“Most of New Zealand’s population is concentrated in the north island.”
stick (v): چسباندن ، چسبيدن
“Did you remember to stick a stamp on the envelope?”
feature (n,v): ويژگى، نشان دادن ، نماياندن
“The software has no particular distinguishing features.”
“Many of the hotels featured in the brochure offer special deals for weekend breaks.”
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voluntary (adj): اختياري ، داوطلبانه
“We’re asking for people to help on a voluntary basis so that they can have more dedication to their work.”
anxious (adj): دلواپس، آرزومند، انديشناك
“June’s anxious about the results of her final exams that they are announcing at the end of this week.”
arbitrary (adj): اختياري، دلبخواهي، ديمي
“I don’t know why I chose that one; it was a completely arbitrary decision.”
imperative (adj): امري ، ضروري
“It is absolutely imperative that we finish the school project by the end of next week.”
comment (n,v): تفسير، نظر، اظهار نظر كردن
“She made some helpful comments on my newest essay on literary criticism.”
“A spokesperson commented that levels of carbon dioxide were very high.”
disclose (v): فاش كردن ، باز كرد ن، آشكار كردن
“The report discloses that human error was to blame for the accident.”
prohibit (v): منع كردن ، جلوگيري كردن
“Motor vehicles are strictly prohibited from driving in the town center.”
incident (n): رويداد، رخداد
“Any witnesses to the incident should immediately speak to the police.”
appreciate (v): قدرداني كردن ، آگاه بودن، دانستن
“His talents are not fully appreciated in that company.”
“I don’t think you appreciate how expensive it will be for us to repaint the bedroom.”
distract (v): حواس (كسي را) پرت كردن
“He tried to distract public attention from his illegal activities.”
deficiency (n): نقص، ناكارآيي
“The company admitted that the accident was caused by deficiencies in the engine.”
innovate (v): نو آوري كردن
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“The company has successfully innovated new products and services.”
desperate (adj): بيچاره، از جان گذشته، از سر نااميدي، نااميد كننده، بيهوده
“His increasing financial difficulties forced him to take desperate measures.”
“He was so desperate for a job he would have done anything.”
immediate (adj): بي درنگ
“When we launched the new system, the results were immediate.”
effort (n): تلاش ، كوشش
“The company has invested a great deal of time and effort in setting up new training schemes.”
deprive (v): بي بهره كردن
“You can’t function properly at work if you are deprived of sleep.”
essential (adj): ضروري، اساسي
“The museum is closed while essential repairs are being carried out.”
plentiful (adj): فراوان، بسيار
“I took a plentiful supply of games to keep the children amused.”
likely (adj): محتمل
“Young drivers are more likely to have accidents than older drivers.”
occasion (n): موقعيت، مناسبت، جشن
“We met on several occasions to discuss the issue of our future cooperation.”
“I have an expensive suit, but I only wear it on very special occasions.”
artificial (adj): ساختگي ، مصنوع ي
“Animals hate being confined in an artificial environment.”
abstract (adj): خيالي ،انتزاعي
“We may talk of beautiful things but beauty itself is abstract.”
lean (v): تكيه كردن ، تكيه دادن، خم شدن، پشت گرمي داشتن، وابسته بودن
“As I was leaning out of the window, I saw him getting out of his car.”
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“The woman who was injured in the accident walked slowly, leaning on her son’s arm.”
“He has always had his big brother to lean on, financially and emotionally.”
discipline (n, v): انضباط، مقررات، تنبيه كردن، تربيت كردن، پروراندن
“Lack of discipline at home meant that many pupils found it difficult to settle into the ordered environment of the
school.”
“The staff members were disciplined for their carelessness and rudeness towards the customers.”
“Working in a bakery for some years has disciplined Joe to get up early.”
confession (n): اقرار، اعتراف
“After hours of questioning by police, he made a full confession.”
consequence (n): پيامد
“I knew that I had made a big mistake and that I couldn’t escape the consequences.”
nominate (v): كانديد كردن ، نامزد كردن ، معرفي كردن
“I nominated Mr. Johnson to represent our company at the meeting.”
object (n,v): چيز، كالا، هدف ، مخالفت كردن
“The billionaire has an enormous collection of precious objects.”
“The object of this program is to educate people about road safety.”
“No one objected when the boss said it was time to go home.”
contaminate (v): آلودن
“Drinking water supplies are believed to have been contaminated.”
fortune (n): خوش بختي ، بهروزي ، بخت، پول فراوان، دارايي
“Fortune smiled on me and finally I was employed as the company’s new sales representative.”
“You don’t have to spend a fortune to give your family tasty, healthy meals.”
rural (adj): روستايي
“All I want now is a peaceful rural setting so that I can write my books and enjoy my life.”
principal (n, adj): رئيس ، مدير، اصلي ، مه م
“She was introduced as the new principal of our school.”
“My principal concern, at the moment, is to get the job done fast.”
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conquer (v): ( پيروزي يافتن (بر) ، پيروز شدن (بر
“She was determined to conquer her fear of flying.”
disturb (v): بر هم زدن، به هم زدن، آشفتن
“In a library, you should keep your voices low, so you don’t disturb the others.”
costly (adj): گران، پرهزينه
“It was too costly to fix her car after the accident, so she decided to buy a new car instead.”
genuine (adj): راستين، حقيقي، درست، اصل
“She has a genuine interest in seeing her students succeed.”
“If it is a genuine Picasso drawing, it will sell for millions.”
refusal (n): خود داري ،رد
“I hadn’t anticipated that my request for more money would be met with a flat refusal.”
hectic (adj): ناآرام، پر دردسر
“This rural area has become a haven for people tired of the hectic pace of city life.”
interrupt (v): گسيختن، بريدن، توي حرف كسي دويدن
“Oliver began his story but was soon interrupted by the arrival of Mr. Gosling.”
strike (n, v): اعتصاب ، زدن ، خوردن، اعتصاب كردن ، هجوم آموردن، حمله كردن
“Air traffic controllers are threatening to go on strike if they are not paid double.”
“He fell heavily, striking his head against the side of the boat.”
“They are striking for the right to have their trade union recognized in law.”
“The police have announced that the killer might strike again.”
elaborate (v, adj): توضيح دادن، گسترش دادن، پيچيده، مفصل
“He said he was resigning but did not elaborate on his reasons.”
“They had made elaborate preparations for his visit; but, at the last minute, his flight was canceled.”
reluctant (adj): بي ميل
“Although she was reluctant to admit she was wrong, when she saw the consequence of her words, she apologized.”
predict (v): پيشگويي كردن ، پيش بيني كردن
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“Scientists claim that they have devised a reliable method of predicting earthquakes.”
influence (n,v): تأثير، عامل مؤثر، اثر گذاشتن
“His first music teacher was a major influence in his life.”
“Research shows that most young smokers are influenced by their friends.”
attempt (n,v): كوشش، تلاش، كوشيدن، اقدام كردن
“His early attempts at writing short stories were a dismal failure, but now he has noticeably improved.”
“The plane crashed while attempting an emergency landing.”
decline (v, n): كاهش ،رد كردن ،نپذيرفتن ،كاستن ، كم شدن
“Unfortunately, our qualified staff are leaving and standards are declining.”
“We asked them to come with us to the movies, but they declined our invitation.”
“The last three years have seen a dramatic decline in the number of tigers in the area.”
entitle (v): سزاوار دانستن، اجازه دادن
“Full-time employees are entitled to receive health insurance.”
convince (v): متقاعد كردن
“You’ll need to convince them of your enthusiasm for the job.”
mediate (v): ميانجي گري كردن ، پا در مياني كردن
“He is attempting to mediate a settlement between the company and the striking workers.”
impression (n): اثر، احساس
“It creates a very bad impression if you are late for a job interview.”
firm (adj,n): استوار، پايدار
“Our client hasn’t reached a firm decision on the matter yet.”
relative (adj): نسبي
“The relative merits of both approaches have to be considered before taking any further action.”
economical (adj): بصرفه، اقتصادي
“This store provides good-quality clothes at economical prices.”
possibility (n): امكان ، احتمال
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“His recent performance opens up the possibility for him to compete in the Olympic Games.”
evolve (v): رشد كردن، پرورش يافتن، تكامل يافتن
“The once small company has now evolved into a major chemical manufacturer.”
pursue (v): دنبال كردن ، پيگيري كردن
“Parents should always encourage their children to pursue their interests.”
retrieve (v): پس گرفتن ، باز يافت ن
“Computers are used to store and retrieve information efficiently.”
invoke (v): استناد كردن، فراخواندن
“She invoked several eminent scholars to back up her argument.”
outcome (n): پيامد
“We were eager to know what the outcome of the biological experiment would be.”
grant (n,v): دادن ، بخشيدن، امتياز، كمك هزينه
“The council have granted him permission to build on the site.”
“They’d got a special grant to encourage research.”
dominant (adj): چيره ، حكمفرما، برجسته
“Japan became dominant in the mass market during the 1980s.”
engage (v): به كار گماشتن ، گرفتن ، جلب كردن، گرفتن
“She’s such a talented storyteller; she’s able to engage the people’s imaginations very tactfully.”
“The child’s father engaged a tutor to improve the child’s mathematics.”
inspire (v): الهام بخشيدن
“By visiting schools, the actors hope to inspire children to put on their own productions.”
awareness (n): آگاهي، هوشياري
“This series of advertisements is meant to raise the public’s awareness of environmental issues.”
convenience (n): آسودگي، راحتي
“The position of the house combines quietness and convenience.”
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comparison (n): مقايسه ، سنجش ، برابري
“The author has tried to make an interesting comparison of different countries’ eating habits.”
reveal (v): آشكار كردن، فاش كردن
“It was revealed that important evidence concerning the murder case had been suppressed.”
forecast (n,v): پيش بيني ، پيش بيني كردن
“The weather forecast said that it was going to rain later tonight.”
“It is difficult to forecast the demand for the new train service.”
attach (v): پيوست كردن ، چسباندن، وابسته بودن
“For your convenience, I have attached a copy of the document to this e-mail.”
“Even after 32 years, he was strongly attached to his family.”
devise (v): تدبير كردن ، درست كردن
“They have devised a new method for converting sunlight into electricity.”
device (n): دستگاه
“The company mass-produces devices to detect carbon monoxide.”
potential (adj,n): نهان، نهفته، ناشناخته، توانايي، پتانسيل
“The potential benefits must be weighed up against the costs involved.”
“All children should be encouraged to realize their full potential.”
critical (adj): بحراني، حساس، موشكافانه، نكته سنج، نقادانه
“Reducing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is of critical importance to the whole world.”
“We need to look at these proposed changes with a critical eye before we accept them.”
intrinsic (adj): دروني، ذاتي
“The intrinsic value of education is appreciated by everyone.”
handle (n,v): به دست گرفتن، اداره كردن، رسيدگي كردن، دستگيره
“The principal handled the quarrel between the two students very well.”
“I turned the handle and found the door was open.”
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associate (v): پيوند دادن، رابطه داشتن
“The cancer risks associated with smoking have been well documented.”
recognize (v): بازشناختن ، شناختن
“He’d lost so much weight I hardly recognized him when he came in!”
contain (v): دارا بودن ، دربرداشتن
“The report contained some shocking information about racism in today’s world.”
define (v): معين كردن ، تعريف كردن
“Teachers need to give students rules that are clearly defined.”
condition (n): وضعيت ، چگونگي ، شرط
“Though old and not used for a rather long time, the car is still in excellent condition.”
“They agreed to lend us the car on condition that we returned it before the weekend.”